January 19, 2009 KCSE Exams
1. (a) What is meant by the term binomial nomeclature? (1 mark)
(b) Give two reasons why classification is important. (2 marks)
2. (a) What is the formula for calculating linear magnification of a specimen when using a hand lens?(1 mark)
(b) Give a reason why staining is necessary when preparing specimens for observation under the microscope. (1 mark)
3. Plant cells do not burst when immersed in distilled water. Explain. (2 marks)
4. State three functions of Golgi apparatus. (3 marks)
5. Distinguish between diffusion and osmosis. (2 marks)
6. Describe what happens during the light stage of photosynthesis. (3 marks)
(a) (i) Name the type of tooth shown. (1 mark)
(ii) Give a reason for your answer in (a) (i) above. (1 mark)
(b) State the functions of the structures found in the part labelled J. (2 marks)
8. (a) Name a fat soluble vitamin manufactured by the human body. (1 mark)
(b) State two functions of potassium ions in the human body. (2 marks)
9. State two ways in which the root hairs are adapted to their function. (2 marks)
10. The diagram below represents a plant tissue.
(a) Name the tissue. (1 mark)
(b) Name the cells labelled K and L. (2 marks)
(c) What is the function of the companion cell? (1 mark)
11 (a) What prevents blood in veins from flowing backwards? (1 mark)
(b) State two ways in which the red blood cells are adapted to their function. (2 marks)
12 (a) Name two structures tor gaseous exchange in aquatic plants. (2 marks)
(b) What is the effect of contraction of the diaphragm muscles during breathing in mammals? (3 marks)
3 (a) Name the products of anaerobic respiration in
( ii) animals,
(b) What is oxygen debt? (1 mark)
14 (a) What is the meaning of the following terms:
(i) homeostasis (1 mark)
( ii) osmoregulalion (1 mark)
(b) Name the hormones involved in regulating glucose lev
el in blood. (2 marks)
15 a) Distinguish between population and community. (2 marks)
b) Name a method that could be used to estimate the population size of the following organisms:
(i) fish in a pond (1 mark)
(ii) Blackjack in a garden. (1 mark)
16. State two ways in which schistosoma species is adapted to parasitic mode of life. (2 marks)
17. The diagram below represents a stage during cell division.
(i) Identity the stage of cell division. (1 mark)
(ii) Give three reasons for your answer in (a) (i) above. (2 marks)
(b) Name the structures labelled M. (1 mark)
18. State two disadvantages of sexual reproduction in animals. (2 marks)
19 (a) State two environmental conditions that can cause seed dormancy. (2 marks)
(b) Name the pan of a bean seed that elongates to bring about epigeal germination.
20 (a) What is meant by the term allele?
(b) Explain how the following occur during gene mutation:
(c) What is a test-cross?
21 (a) What is adaptive radiation?
(b) Give a reason why organisms become resistant to drugs.
22. (a) Where in the human body are relay neurones found?
(b)The diagram below represents a neurone.
(i) Name the neurone. (1 mark)
(ii) Name the parts labelled P and Q. (2 marks)
23. (a) Name the hormone that is responsible for apical dominance. (1 mark)
( b) What is thigmotropism? (1 mark)
24. (a) State a characteristic that is common to all cervical vertebrae. (1 mark)
(b) Name two tissues in plants that provide mechanical support.
25. (a ) The action of plyalin stops at the stomach. Explain. (1 mark)
(b) State a factor that denatures enzymes. (1 mark)
c) Name the features that increase the surface area of small intestines. (2 marks)
26 Stale one way by which HIV/A1DS is transmitted from mother to child. ( 1 mark)